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Can You Guess Which President Said [X] First?

A politico-linguistic challenge.

Posted on January 20, 2015, at 1:44 p.m. ET

Larry Downing / Reuters

Every year, the State of the Union contains new language — words or phrases that have never appeared in a State of the Union before. In 1993, for example, Bill Clinton introduced "gridlock" into the SOTU canon; in 2013, Barack Obama added "brinksmanship." Can you match the words and phrases below to the presidents who said (or wrote) them first?

Fine print: We're counting everything in the American Presidency Project's "State of the Union Addresses and Messages" archive, even though a handful are "technically not considered to be 'State of the Union' addresses."

  1. 1. "millionaire(s)"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    George Washington, 1795
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Thomas Jefferson, 1806
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Theodore Roosevelt, 1908
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Ronald Reagan, 1985
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "Our great clusters of corporations, huge trusts and fabulously wealthy multi-millionaires, employ the very best lawyers they can obtain to pick flaws in these statutes after their passage; [...]"

  2. 2. "billionaire(s)"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Martin van Buren, 1838
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1945
    Correct
    Incorrect
    John F. Kennedy, 1961
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Barack Obama, 2012
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "Now, you can call this class warfare all you want. But asking a billionaire to pay at least as much as his secretary in taxes? Most Americans would call that common sense."

  3. 3. "Iran"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Andrew Jackson, 1831
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Woodrow Wilson, 1919
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Harry S. Truman, 1952
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Richard Nixon, 1973
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "In the Middle East political tensions and the oil controversy in Iran are keeping the region in a turmoil."

  4. 4. "Iraq"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Abraham Lincoln, 1864
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Harry S. Truman, 1948
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1956
    Correct
    Incorrect
    William J. Clinton, 1993
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "In the last year, the free world has seen major gains for the system of collective security: [...] and the formation in the Middle East of the Baghdad Pact among Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and the United Kingdom."

  5. 5. "Afghanistan"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Theodore Roosevelt, 1906
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Harry S. Truman, 1950
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1959
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Richard Nixon, 1973
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "Recently Iran scored the largest opium seizure on record — over 12 tons taken from smugglers along the Afghanistan border."

  6. 6. "Canada"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    George Washington, 1796
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Thomas Jefferson, 1807
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Grover Cleveland, 1885
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Woodrow Wilson, 1916
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "As soon, however, as the Governor-General of Canada could be addressed with propriety on the subject, arrangements were cordially and promptly concluded [...]"

  7. 7. "evil"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    George Washington, 1790
    Correct
    Incorrect
    James Buchanan, 1857
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Benjamin Harrison, 1892
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1956
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "Our fisheries and the transportation of our own produce offer us abundant means for guarding ourselves against this evil."

  8. 8. "terrorism"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Thomas Jefferson, 1807
    Correct
    Incorrect
    John Quincy Adams, 1825
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Lyndon B. Johnson, 1967
    Correct
    Incorrect
    George W. Bush, 2002
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    " And this means reducing the terrorism and the armed attacks which kidnaped and killed 26,900 civilians in the last 32 months, to levels where they can be successfully controlled by the regular South Vietnamese security forces."

  9. 9. "terrorist(s)"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    John Quincy Adams, 1826
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1957
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Ronald Reagan, 1985
    Correct
    Incorrect
    William J. Clinton, 1995
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "The Sandinista dictatorship of Nicaragua, with full Cuban-Soviet bloc support, not only persecutes its people, the church, and denies a free press, but arms and provides bases for Communist terrorists attacking neighboring states."

  10. 10. "bin Laden"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    George W. Bush, 2002
    Correct
    Incorrect
    George W. Bush, 2004
    Correct
    Incorrect
    George W. Bush, 2006
    Correct
    Incorrect
    George W. Bush, 2008
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "Terrorists like bin Laden are serious about mass murder, and all of us must take their declared intentions seriously."

  11. 11. "telegraph"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    James Monroe, 1821
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Abraham Lincoln, 1862
    Correct
    Incorrect
    William McKinley, 1898
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Ronald Reagan, 1987
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "I have favored the project for connecting the United States with Europe by an Atlantic telegraph [...]"

  12. 12. "telephone"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    John Adams, 1800
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Theodore Roosevelt, 1903
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Calvin Coolidge, 1926
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1959
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "Rural free delivery, taken in connection with the telephone, the bicycle, and the trolley, accomplishes much toward lessening the isolation of farm life and making it brighter and more attractive."

  13. 13. "typewriter"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    George Washington, 1790
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1945
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Ronald Reagan, 1981
    Correct
    Incorrect
    William J. Clinton, 1995
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "The New Covenant approach to governing is as different from the old bureaucratic way as the computer is from the manual typewriter."

  14. 14. "computer(s)"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Woodrow Wilson, 1920
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Richard Nixon, 1972
    Correct
    Incorrect
    George W. Bush, 2002
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "The daily life of the average man has also been improved by much of our defense and space research--for example, by work on radar, jet engines, nuclear reactors, communications and weather satellites, and computers."

  15. 15. "the sun"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Thomas Jefferson, 1802
    Correct
    Incorrect
    James K. Polk, 1848
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Grover Cleveland, 1888
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Woodrow Wilson, 1918
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "No cares, no attentions, can preserve vessels from rapid decay which lie in water and exposed to the sun."

  16. 16. "the moon"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    James Buchanan, 1860
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Theodore Roosevelt, 1908
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Calvin Coolidge, 1923
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "The near future will hold such wonders as the orbital flight of an astronaut, the landing of instruments on the moon, the launching of the powerful giant Saturn rocket vehicles, and the reconnaissance of Mars and Venus by unmanned vehicles."

  17. 17. "inflation"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    James Monroe, 1824
    Correct
    Incorrect
    John Tyler, 1841
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Lyndon B. Johnson, 1967
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Richard Nixon, 1973
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "It is made to rest on an actual specie basis in order to redeem the notes at the places of issue, produces no dangerous redundancy of circulation, affords no temptation to speculation, is attended by no inflation of prices, [...]"

  18. 18. "unemployment"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    James Madison, 1816
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Ulysses S. Grant, 1869
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Woodrow Wilson, 1919
    Correct
    Incorrect
    John F. Kennedy, 1963
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "There is a point at which in peace times high rates of income and profits taxes discourage energy, remove the incentive to new enterprises, encourage extravagant expenditures and produce industrial stagnation with consequent unemployment and other attendant evils."

  19. 19. "poverty"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    John Adams, 1797
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Ulysses S. Grant, 1875
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Richard Nixon, 1973
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Ronald Reagan, 1988
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "In short, commerce has made this country what it is, and it can not be destroyed or neglected without involving the people in poverty and distress."

  20. 20. "racism"

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Grover Cleveland, 1888
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Theodore Roosevelt, 1907
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1957
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Jimmy Carter, 1979
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    "We've gained new trust with the developing world through our opposition to racism, our commitment to human rights, and our support for majority rule in Africa."

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