Gambian human rights activists said Thursday that they hope that a surge in interest around a crackdown on LGBT rights in the small West African country will finally spur action from the U.S. government they say has long turned a blind eye to dozens of human rights abuses during President Yahya Jammeh's 20-year rule.
"In all these years of efforts to go to the state department, going to all these different levels in the U.S. government lobbying and lobbying for them to do something about the Gambia, we haven't been having any traction at all," said Banka Manneh of Civil Society Associations Gambia, who was one of three activists who participated in a Thursday roundtable organized by the RFK Center for Human Rights in Washington, D.C. He held up a 10-page list of names of individuals executed, disappeared, or forced into exile under Jammeh's regime as he spoke. "All of sudden they arrest these 15 gays and lesbians, and we're seeing really what seems to be a firestorm."
Since early November, at least 15 people alleged to be LGBT have been arrested by Gambian authorities, according to the activists, and at least eight more have fled the country. Jammeh has made several remarks encouraging violence toward LGBT people, and the activists fear those arrested may be tortured or executed, given his past behavior.
The anti-LGBT campaign — which was foreshadowed with the passage of an "aggravated homosexuality" law closely modeled on Uganda's infamous "Anti-Homosexuality Act" in August — has caused a surge in international coverage for the country that is home to around 2 million people. Even the conference organizer, the RFK Center's Jeffrey Smith, expressed surprise that the conference room was filled, because activists have long been unsuccessful in generating interest in Washington about the abuses of one of Africa's most unpredictable dictators.
Fatou Camara, who briefly served as Jammeh's press secretary and now is an opposition activist living in the United States, said it was "long overdue to bring the attention of the world to the plight of Gambians living under the brutal dictatorship of Jammeh" who has been "killing of people with reckless abandon" for two decades.
Camara, who suffered a concussion when assaulted by Jammeh's security detail during a protest against his visit to Washington for an African leaders summit organized by the White House in August, criticized the Obama administration for sending mixed signals about its position on Jammeh's human rights record.
The activists said the European Union has imposed some sanctions in response to human rights concerns, but the U.S. government has not taken any public actions even following the disappearance of two American citizens believed to have been abducted by Jammeh's security forces in 2013, or when 14 students were gunned down for protesting the rape of a classmate by security police in a notorious 2000 incident. The activists called for the U.S. to take steps including banning visas and freezing assets of people close to Jammeh.
"What we are hoping is that this could be a catalyst. Maybe this could be a wake up call," Manneh said. "Maybe [U.S. officials have] been asleep all this time. ... If this serves that purpose, that would be awesome because then it benefits the LGBT community and the regular Gambians."
Following a request for comment from BuzzFeed News, White House spokeswoman Bernadette Meehan issued a statement that said, "We remain concerned about ongoing reports of forced disappearances and arbitrary arrests, including of journalists, human rights advocates, and civil servants, as well as continued calls by senior officials for the persecution of members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. We remain deeply disappointed in the Gambian government's failure to investigate the disappearance of two U.S. citizens missing since June 2013."
Meehan did not comment on whether asset freezes and travel bans might be imposed on Gambian officials as were imposed on Ugandan officials following passage of its anti-LGBT legislation, but said, "Protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms is a cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy, and we will be guided by these values as we respond to these negative developments in The Gambia."
But mounting a campaign against Jammeh based on his attack on LGBT rights carries risks for human rights activists, the Gambians said. "Being gay in the Gambia ... is not popular," Manneh said. The activists contend that Jammeh "manufactured" a confrontation with the international community over LGBT rights in part to win popular support for his brutal regime at home.
"Jammeh is couching the entire debate [with the international community] on the issue of ... gay rights, that Western countries want to impose that," said Amadou Scattred Janneh, a former Gambian Minister of Information who was sentenced to life in prison for treason after distributing T-shirts with the slogan "End Dictatorship Now." "We have to play a balancing act ... making sure that we don't lose focus on the overall human rights situation in the country."
This is the 10-page list of executions, disappearances, and other human rights abuses under Jammeh's rule compiled by Gambian human rights activists, which they say is only a partial list.
List Of Yahya Jammeh's Human Rights Violation Prisoners executed in Mile 2 Prisons August 23, 2012:
1. Lamin B. Darboe
2. Alieu Bah
3. Lamin Jarju
4. Dawda Bojang 5. Malang Sonko
7. Lamin F Jammeh
8. Gibril Bah (Senegalese)
9. Tabara Samba, raped multiple times before her execution (Senegalese, female)
Gambians recently murdered on orders of Yahya Jammeh:
Abdoulie Colley, Abuko Village
Musa Badjie, collapsed and died in Mile 2 Prison, August 25, 2012 Wuyeh Colley, Kanunorr village, murdered August 22, 2012
Enor Colley, Kanunorr village, murdered August 22, 2012
Regime's witching-hunting Kangaroo Trials:
GAMCOTRAP's Dr. Isatou Touray and Co. trials
GNOC's Beatrice Allen and Co. trials
Suruwa Wawa B. Jaiteh and Dr. Loum's trials
Dr. Amadou Jallow and Co. trials
Dr. Alasan Bah and Co's trials
Detained and kidnapped without trial & trace 2013-2014:
Alhaji Mamut Ceesay (Gambia born US citizen)
Lieutenant Colonel Solo Bojang (former Commander of the State Guards in Kanilai)
Mr Thomas Jarju (Commissioner of the Gambia Prison)
Ebou Jobe (Gambia born US citizen)
Mr Momodou Sowe (ex- Protocol Officer at the state house in Banjul)
Momodou Sabally (former Secretary General and Presidential Affairs Minister)
Recent arrest, detention and charged with treason:
Amadou Scattred Janneh, former minister of Information.
Ndey Tapha Sosseh, former president of the Gambia Press Union Mathew K. Jallow
Michael C. Uche Thomas (died in prison)
Torture and Yahya Jammeh's convoy related deaths:
Demba Sibey of Numuyel village
A third grader from Saaba Primary School
A young girl killed Yahya Jammeh's motorcade/Gunjur prayer fest
Paul Bass NIA operative killed by Jammeh's convoy
Arab businessman dead in collided with Jammeh's convoy
A soldier from Sintet village killed escorting Jammeh's convoy
A little girl killed by convoy during Mauritanian President's visit
A child killed by stampede for Jammeh's biscuits at Sere Kunda market
In total since 1994 nearly twenty people; children and adults have died as a direct result of Yahya Jammeh's speeding convoys and throwing biscuits into throngs of hungry crowds.
Executed and Murdered Civilians, journalists, and Military:
Ousman Koro Ceesay Deyda Hydara
Sidia Sanyang Ebrima Chief Manneh Omar Barrow
Staff Sergeant Manlafi Corr Sergeant Major Alpha Bah Lieut. Ebou Lowe
Lieut. Alieu Ceesay
Sgt. Fafa Nyang
Lieut. Basiru Barrow
Cpt. Sadibou Hydara
Lieut. Almamo Manneh
Lieut. Abdoulie Dot Faal
Lieut. Bakary Manneh
Lieut. Buba Jammeh
Lieut. Momodou Lamin Darboe Cadet Officer Sillah
Lieut. Basiru Camara Corpl. Mendy
Lieut. Gibril Saye
Sergeant Dumbuya Momodou Sowe
Gambians kidnapped, detained, released, in Jail or murdered between 1994-2014:
RSM Alpha Bah (executed
Major Ebrima Bah
Lt Momodou Alieu Ba
Corporal Samba Bah
Tijan Bahoum: Power Supply Director NAWEC Kemo Balajo: ex-National Intelligence Agency Foday Barry: ex-NIA; director of Intelligence Ourani Barry: ex-Senior Civil Servant
Lamin Bojang: Medical Research Council Ebrima Camara: ex-police officer
Omar Barru Camara: ex-MP APRC Captain Wassa Camara
2nd Lt Alieu Ceesay
Lamin Ceesay: Politician
Madi Ceesay: President, Gambia Press Union
Awa Darboe Cham: wife of alleged coup leader Ndure Cham Lamin Cham: ex-Daily Observer, BBC correspondent
Lamin Cham: Politician
Momat Cham: former minister
Momodou Cadi Cham: former politician
Superintendent Abdoulie Colley: ex-police officer
Retired Colonel Abdoulie Conteh: former KMC Mayor
Staff Sergeant Manlafi Corr
Captain Bunja Darboe
Lamin R. Darboe: Politician
Lamin Saiba Darboe
Captain Yaya Darboe
Adama Deen: former Managing Director Gambia Ports Authority Demba Dem: ex-MP APRC
Momodou Demba: Politician
Mariam Denton: Human Rights Lawyer
Raif Diab: Businessman
Ramzia Diab: former nominated MP, APRC
Musa Dibba: ex-NIA Director of Finance
Sheriff Mustapha Dibba: ex-Assembly Speaker
Baba Drammeh: ex-Independent Electoral
Commission (IEC) officer
Omar Faal: Marabout
Ansumana Fadera: ex-Senior Civil Servant
Jerreh Fatty: Politician
Lamin Fatty: journalist, The Independent newspaper
Mariama Fatty: Politician
Kebba Faye: ex-Senior Civil Servant
Tamba Fofana: Head Master
Abdou Gafar: journalist, Daily Express newspaper
Lamin Gassama: Security Manager, Banjul International Airport Antouman Gaye: Lawyer
Pa Njie Guirigara: General Manager, VM
Sarane Hydara: ex-Senior Civil Servant
Captain Abdoukarim Jah
Karamo Jaiteh: former Managing Director, Gambia Roads Authority Suruwa Wawa B Jaiteh: former Permanent Secretary
Staff Sergeant Buba Jammeh Haruna Jammeh. Villager Kebbaringo Jammeh: Councilor Marcel Jammeh. Villager
Lance Corporal Babou Janha
Amie Jarju. Villager
Cherno Ndure Jarju: Politician
Lamin Jarsey: Politician
Tamsir Jassey: ex-Deputy Inspector General Police, Director of Immigration Dudu Kassa Jatta: Politician
Ousman Rambo Jatta: Councilor
Colonel Vincent Jatta: ex-Chief of Defense Staff (deceased)
Momodou Jaw: ex-IEC officer
Abdoulie Kanaji Jawla: MP, APRC
Baboucarr Jobarteh: ex-Protocol Officer
Maimuna Jobarteh: Politician
Abdou Jobe: Managing Director, NAWEC
Alieu Jobe: ex-Accountant General
Duta Kamaso: ex-MP, APRC
Kanyiba Kanyi: Politician
Lamin Keita: ex-Senior Civil Servant
Nato Keita: Politician
Abdoulie Kujabi: ex-Director General, NIA
Dr. Badara Loum: ex-Permanent Secretary
Lt Ebou Lowe
Mustapha Lowe: College student
Bamba Manneh: ex-NIA operative
Mr Njogou Lamin Bah (another former Secretary General of the Civil Service and Minister for Presidential affairs)
Mr Amadou Sanneh, Malang Fatty, Sambou Fatty (officials of the main opposition United Democratic Party (UDP))
Chief Ebrima B. Manneh: journalist, Daily Observer newspaper
Fatou Jaw Manneh: journalist
Kebba Yorro Manneh: Politician
Daba Marena: ex-Director General, NIA
Malick M'boob: ex-Daily Observer, RV
Sulayman Sait M'boob: ex-Minister, IEC Commissioner
Sergeant Buba Mendy
Captain Pierre Mendy
Omar Ndow: former Managing Director of Gamtel/Gamcel
Ndondi S.Z. Njie: former Chairman of IEC
Alhagie Nyabally: ex-President, Gambia Student Union
Dr. Badara Loum: Former Permanent Secretary, Agriculture Private Alagie Nying: Gambia National Army
Sam Obi: Daily Express, RFI correspondent
Baba Saho: ex-NIA director, External Security
Musa Saidykhan: former Editor-In-Chief, The Independent newspaper Betrand Sambou
Dodou Sanneh: former journalist, GRTS
Ebrima Sillah Sanneh: ex-IEC officer
Lamin Sanneh: former Permanent Secretary Sergeant Abdoulie Sanyang
2nd Lt Pharing Sanyang: Gambia National Army Commander MB Sarr: Gambia National Army
Lt M. Savage: Gambia National Army
Ebou Secka: ex-Senior Civil Servant
Nourou Secka: ex-NIA operative
Momodou Senghore: ex-Senior Civil Servant Ousman Sey: Marabout
Musa Sheriff: journalist, Gambia News & Report magazine Amie Sillah: journalist, women activist
Alieu Singhateh: ex-NIA operative
Kebba Singhateh: Politician
Modou Sonko: journalist, Daily Observer newspaper Private Ebrima Sonko
Juldeh Sowe: journalist, The Independent newspaper Issac Success: journalist, Daily Express newspaper Azziz Tamba: Politician
￼Lt Lalo Jaiteh,Lt Omar Darboe, Capt Alhagie Kanteh fled Ebrima Barrow,
Momodou Marena, Dumo Saho
Private Lamin Bojang: escaped to Cassamance and in 1995 was abducted by security forces in Cassamance and not seen since.
WO2 Almamy Bojang
Musa Mboob former Immigration Director
Andrew Silva SSHFC
Gumbo Ali Touray, former Director of International Affairs and Information at the University of The Gambia (UTG) was arrested, detained, taken to court and charged with "giving false information to a public officer
Arrest and Detention of Journalists:
Fatou Camara 2013
Sports Editor Nanama Keita, facing witch-hunting/Kangaroo Trial Ahmed Alota, arrested, detained, released
October 2005: Abdoulie Sey
2005: Musa Saidykhan
March 2006: Musa Saidykhan
March 2006: Madi Ceesay
April 2006: Lamin Fatty
Journalists on Exile in Senegal, Europe and the US:
Pa Ousman Darboe Alieu Badara Sowe Pa Ousman Darboe Musa Saidykhan Sulayman Makalo Omar Bah
Alhagie Mbye Ebrima Sillah Augustus Mendy Bankole Thompson Papa Colley Sulayman Darboe Fatou Jaw Manneh Pa Omar Jatta Momodou Thomas Musa Saidykhan Ansumana Badjie Pa Samba Jaw Sarjo Bayang
Pa Nderry Mbai Cherno Baba Jallow Ebrima Ceesay Baba Galleh Jallow Ebrima G. Sankareh Yankuba Jambang Mathew K. Jallow
Military/Security mysterious deaths:
Captain Tumbul Tamba Captain Musa Jammeh Colonel Vincent Jatta Lieut. Solomon Jammeh Pa M. Jallow
Manlafi Sanyang Boye Bah Momodou Bah Illo Jallow
Military/Security/Civilian recently detained:
Lang Tombong Tamba Bore Badjie
Omar Bun Mbye Demba Njie
Kawsu (Bombardier) Camara Ngorr Secka, NIA
Military/Security/Civilians: detained, released, fled:
Captain Bunja Darboe Capt Yahya Darboe Capt. Wassa Camara 2nd Lt Pharing Sanyang Alieu Jobe
Tamsir Jasseh Omar Faal Demba Dem, Col. Ndure Cham Abdoulie Kujabi Kemo Balajo Alieu Singhateh Foday Barry Landing Sanneh
Executed Military and Security officers 2006:
Alieu Ceesay Alpha Bah Manlafi Corr Ebou Lowe Daba Marenah
Students Massacred April 11th. 2000:
Reginald Carrol Karamo Barrow Lamin A. Bojang Ousman Sabally Sainey Nyabally Ousman Sembene Bakary Njie
Claesco Pierra Momodou Lamin Njie Ebrima Barry
Wuyea Foday Mansareh Bamba Jobarteh Momodou Lamin Chune Abdoulie Sanyang Omar Barrow
Students Maimed, paralyzed, or otherwise critically injured by security forces during April 10/11, 2000 Demonstrations:
Hundreds of students beaten, arrested, tortured, wounded
Gambians Missing and Disappeared Since 2005:
Ebrima (Chief) Manneh: arrested July 2006 Kanyiba Kanyi arrested September 2006 Haruna Jammeh arrested in 2005
Marcie Jammeh arrested in 2005 Alfusainey Jammeh arrested in 2005 Momodou Lamin Nyassi arrested in 2005 Ndongo M'boob arrested in 2006
Buba Sanyang arrested in 2006
Alieu Lowe arrested in March 2006,
Sgt. Sam Kambai arrested in 2006
Bakary Gassama arrested in 2007
Kebba Secka arrested in 2007
Ebrima Dibba arrested in May 2008,
Ebrima Kunchi Jammeh arrested in May 2008
Cases of Regime ordered Arsons against media personals:
August 8th. 2001, Radio Station 1 FM, was set ablaze around 2 a.m. in the morning, after proprietor George Christensen and his watchman were doused with hazardous chemicals in the hope of incinerating them. The two victims survived the ordeal, but the station was a total loss. August 10th. 2001, the home of Alieu Bah, Radio I FM journalist, who moderated debates and discussions between prominent personalities, was set ablaze around 3 a.m. while he, his wife and children were asleep. The family narrowly escaped death, but the house was gutted to the ground.
October 17th. 2003, The Independent Newspaper premises were set on fire around 3 a.m in the morning when three unidentified masked men stormed the building, assaulted the night watchman and then sprayed him with fire hazard chemical in the hope he would burn to death. But he luckily survived the assault. The premises were destroyed beyond recognition.
April 13th. 2004, the Kanifing printing facilities of the Independent Newspaper was set on fire around 2 a.m. by six individuals dressed in military fatigue. The printing machinery and other hardware equipment were completely destroyed.
August 15th. 2004, the home of B.B.C reporter, Ebrima Sillah was set on fire as he slept. He narrowly escaped.
Arrests, Detentions, Assassinations of Journalists:
September 19th. 2003, around 6 p.m. Abdoulie Sey, the Editor-in-Chief, The
Independent Newspaper was arrested from his office by intelligence agents and held incommunicado. He was released four days later.
September 2005, Musa Saidykhan, Editor-in-Chief, The Independent Newspaper, was detained for interrogation for a brief period of time shortly after returning from a South African journalist conference.
March 27th. 2006, Musa Saidykhan, Editor-in-Chief, The Independent Newspaper, was arrested again by security agents a few days after publishing an article critical of Yahya
Jammeh's reactions in the wake of an alleged coup attempt on March 21, 2007. He was released after three weeks in detention.
March 2006, Madi Ceesay, The Independent General Manager, arrested by the regime's agents, was released after three weeks of detention.
April 10th. 2006, Independent reporter, Lamin Fatty was arrested from his home by NIA
agents and released after two months in detention and charged with false publication.
April 25th. 2006, Independent receptionist, Juldeh Sowe, was arrested and released
after several hours.
July 7th. 2006, Daily Observer journalist, Ebrima Chief Manneh, was arrested by NIA
officials from the Observer premises, was seen in public once after two years detention, at the Royal Victoria Hospital, sick and emaciated. Six powerful U.S Senators; Edward Kennedy, Richard (Dick) Durbin, Russell (Russ) Feingold and Joe Lieberman among others wrote to Yahya Jammeh asking him to release Journalist Manneh after being held for nearly three years. Manneh has since been confirmed murdered by Jammeh's agents.
dMay 24th. 2006, following the hacking of the online, Freedom Newspaper, five Gambian journalists whose names appeared on the paper's readers list were arrested and detained for different lengths of time. After several months they were released. They are: Musa Sheriff, Pa Modou Faal, Lamin Cham, Sam Obi, Malick M'boob
On 16th December 2004 a well known Gambian journalist and proprietor of the weekly
Poin tNewspaper, Mr Deyda Hydara was assassinated by assailants suspected to be under the direct command of the recently demoted Commander of the Presidential Guards Unit, Brigadier General Alhaji Martin (alias Lagos) and the then Secretary of State for the Interior Ousman Sonko. To date no one has been charged let alone prosecuted for this heinous crime. The government commenced a shoddy investigation into the murder that ended up vilifying the memory of the victim rather than seek justice for his killing.
Other arbitrary arrests against journalist September 2006
A Gambia Radio and Television Services reporter, Dodou Sanneh, was arrested and detained, and later fired, rehired and fired again from his job government job.
March 28th. 2007, Fatou Jaw Manneh, a U.S. based Gambian journalist, was arrested at the airport, her traveling documents seized and charged with sedition. Her Kangaroo trial lasted more than a year. Her heavy fine was paid with donations from family and friends from all around the world.
December 16th. 2005, police ruffed Ramatoulie Charreh up after the participants in a
conference she attended, attempted to visit the spot where journalist Deyda Hydara was gunned down.
2006, Njaimeh Bah, Point Newspaper reporter, attacked by unknown assailants, was severely beaten.
December 12. 2006, Baron Eloagou, reporter for the Daily Express, was severely beaten by unknown assailants.
December 2006, Abdougafar Olademinji, reporter for the Daily Express, was attacked by unknown assailants and beaten severely.
June 14th. 2009, seven journalists and members of the Gambia Press Union (GPU), were rounded up from various locations by heavily armed paramilitary agents and
detained at NIA headquarters before being transferred to the notorious Mile 2 prison outside Banjul. The group listed below, were granted bail and charged with publishing seditious material and their case is ongoing despite protestations of regional and international organizations such as Media Foundation for West Africa, Amnesty International, Community to Protect Journalists.
Emil Touray, Secretary General Gambia Press Union Sarata Jabbi Dibba, Vice President, Gambia Press Union Pa Modou Faal, Treasurer, Gambia Press Union
Pap Saine, Managing Director, The Point Newspaper Ebou Sawaneh, Editor, The Point Newspaper, Sam Sarr, Managing Editor, The Foroyaa Newspaper Abubakr Saidy-Khan, journalist, Foroyaa newspaper.
June 16th. 2009, Abdulhamid Adiamoh, Publisher of Today Newspaper, was arrested for false publication and detained at National Intelligence headquarters. Forced to pleadguilty or face deportation back to Nigeria, he was fine an extortive amount of money or face six months jail time.
June 22nd. 2009, Augustine Kanja, a reporter for The Point Newspaper, was arrested and detained by security agents. He was released June 25th, 2009.
Attempted Murders, Fled Gambia:
Ousman Sillah: Attorney/Lawyer
Mai Fatty: Attorney/Lawyer
Foreign nationals executed in Gambia:
44 Ghanaians 2 Senegalese 1 Togolese
72 Ministers, Appointed and Fired:
Mass Axi Gai
Therese Ndong-Jatta (resigned)
Maba Jobe (hired & fired before taking office) Momodou Lamin Sedat Jobe (resigned) Joseph Henry Joof (resigned)
Satang Jow (retired) Yankuba Kassama
Lamin Kaba Bajo
Fatou Bom Bensouda
John P. Bojang
Bojang Mamat Cham
Momodou Nai Ceesay
Ousman Koro Ceesay (murdered) Sulayman Massaneh Ceesay Bakary Bunja Dabo
Sadibou Haidara (murdered) Sheikh Tijan Hydara
Balla Garba Jahumpa Momodou Sarjo Jallow
Dr Amadou Scattred Janneh Manlafi Jarju
Hawa Sisay Sabally
Sana B. Sabally
Sidy Morro Sanneh
Kebba Sanyang Samsudeen Sarr
Edward Singhatey Raymond Sock
Amina Faal Sonko Baboucarr Jatta
Kumba Ceesay-Marenah Mustapha Marong
Sulayman Mboob Bolong Sonko
Bai Mass Taal Fatoumatta Tambajang Bemba Tambedou Yankuba Touray Crispin Grey Johnson Antouman Saho
Marie Saine Firdaus Edward Gomez Mamburay Njie
Denial of Burial Rights to Exiled Dissidents
On the 09th July 2014, a veteran Gambia politician and former minister in the PPP government of Sir Dawda Jawara, Mr Boubacarr Michael Baldeh, who until his untimely death, lived in self- exil```````e in Senegal, passed away suddenly. His body was being transported to his home town of Basse Mansajang, in the Gambia where he was an MP for many years but upon arrival at the border crossing into Gambia, his cortege was confronted by a contingent of the Gambian National Army, all fully armed, who informed the mourners that they received instructions from the State House in Banjul that the body should not be allowed to pass into Gambian territory. Mr Baldeh's corpse was horridly buried in a neighbouring village in Senegal.
Yayah Jammeh's Human Rights Violation 1994 - 2014 was compiled by Gambian Civil Society Organizations: CORDEG, GCC, GDAC, DUGA, STGDP & GMDD, Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in The Gambia (CORDEG), Coalition for Change- the Gambia (CCG), the Democractic Union of Gambian Activists (DUGA), the Campaign for Democratic Change in the Gambia (CDCG), Save The Gambia Democracy Group (STGDP), Gambia Democraic Action Group (GDAG), Gambia Human Rights Network (GHRN), SeneGambian Human Rights Defense League (SenGamHRDL), Gambia Consultative Consul, (GCC), and the Gambia Movement for Democracy and Development (GMDD)