Sorrentino, 37, will be incarcerated at a federal corrections center in Otisville, New York, as part of his plea deal, which also includes two years of probation, officials confirmed.
Shortly before he was locked up Tuesday, he vowed on social media that he would make a comeback.
Before pleading guilty in January to one count of tax evasion, Sorrentino had been facing up to five years in prison, according to the Department of Justice. His older brother, Marc, was sentenced to two years in prison after pleading guilty to one count of aiding in the preparation of a fraudulent tax return.
Meanwhile, Sorrentino got married to Lauren Pesce at a lavish wedding attended by almost all of his former MTV costars.
The couple has also started a YouTube channel.
Sorrentino has been vocal about working to change his past behavior and said he is now proud to be three years sober.
The brothers were indicted in 2014 and charged with tax evasion, structuring, and falsifying records for conspiring to defraud the US by not paying federal income tax on approximately $8.9 million that Michael earned between 2010 and 2012. Prosecutors also alleged that the brothers filed false tax returns and understated gross receipts, claimed fraudulent business deductions, and disguised income payments.
As part of the conspiracy, the brothers also commingled funds from business and personal bank accounts and used the money to pay for personal items, such as high-end vehicles and clothing. The government also accused Michael Sorrentino of making multiple cash deposits on the same day in amounts less than $10,000 into different bank accounts to evade reporting requirements.
"The law requires all Americans to pay our fair share of taxes," US Attorney Craig Carpenito said after Sorrentino's sentencing. "The defendants deliberately flouted this requirement, acting as though fame and celebrity status placed them above the law. They are not."
His Jersey Shore castmates Nicole "Snooki" Polizzi and Paul DelVecchio Jr., aka DJ Pauly D, showed their support for Sorrentino on Instagram on Tuesday.